Many owners of sole proprietorships, partnerships, S corporations and some trusts and estates may be eligible for a qualified business income (QBI) deduction – also called Section 199A – for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017. The deduction allows eligible taxpayers to deduct up to 20 percent of their qualified business income (QBI), plus 20 percent of qualified real estate investment trust (REIT) dividends and qualified publicly traded partnership (PTP) income. Income earned through a C corporation or by providing services as an employee is not eligible for the deduction. For more information on what qualifies as a trade or business, see Determining your qualified trades or businesses in Publication 535 (PDF).
The deduction is available, regardless of whether taxpayers itemize deductions on Schedule A or take the standard deduction. Eligible taxpayers can claim it for the first time on the 2018 federal income tax return they file in 2019.
The deduction has two components.