New IRS guidance has confirmed that pre-2018 exchanges of Bitcoin, Ether and Litecoin do not qualify for Section 1031 exchange treatment. Prior to 2018, taxpayers were permitted to defer capital gains taxes under Section 1031 for certain exchanges of personal property (1031 is now limited only to exchanges of real property). The IRS’s rationale is that these were not exchanges of like-kind property and so were taxable even prior to tax reform. The IRS found that Bitcoin and Ether each had special roles in cryptocurrency trading because if taxpayers wanted to trade in other types of virtual currency, they had to first exchange the other currency into or from Bitcoin or Ether. Therefore, exchanges between Litecoin and Bitcoin/Ether did not qualify as “like kind”.