I think it is correct to say that all taxpayers are affected by the Affordable Care Act in some way. Certainly individuals living in the US. All must answer a question on the 1040 as to whether everyone in the “shared responsibility family” (basically those listed on the return), had health coverage for all months of the year. If there are any uncovered months, the next step is to see if an exemption applies for that month. If no exemption for any month, a penalty is computed and reported on the 1040.
Some individuals obtained coverage on the Exchange or Marketplace and if their household income is at least 100% of the Federal poverty line but not more than 400% FPL, they get a Premium Tax Credit. Most likely they got it each month via reduced monthly premium amounts, but they must reconcile it by filing a 1040 or 1040A and attaching form 8962.
I’ve got an article in the AICPA Tax Insider (2/18/16) – “What Individuals Need to Know About the Affordable Care Act for 2016.” It covers items relevant to filing 2015 returns as well as for dealing with our current year 2016.
What do you think about the tax provisions of the ACA? I find most to be some of the most complex tax provisions we have – particularly the employer mandate of IRC Section 4980H.