Irish Tax Treatment of Contracts For Difference (CFD)

Recently I’ve received a number of queries relating to the Irish tax treatment of CFDs or Contracts for Difference. Although the information available is plentiful and appears to be straight forward, it’s important to be aware that each situation is different and as a result the tax treatment may vary considerably.

Firstly, what is a Contract for Difference?

Essentially it’s a contract between two parties i.e. the investor and the CFD Provider. At the close of the contract, the parties exchange the difference between the opening and closing prices of a specified financial instrument, including individual equities, currencies, commodities, market indices, market sectors, etc. In other words, two parties take opposing positions on the difference between the opening and closing value of a contract i.e. the price will rise versus the price will fall.

Contracts for Difference offer wide access to different financial instruments from a single account for a fraction of the cost of buying shares. They do not carry votes like ordinary stock and CFD trades on certain Irish stocks are not liable to Stamp Duty.

CFDs can be traded ‘long’ or ‘short’ to speculate on rising or falling markets i.e. the investor speculates that an asset price will rise by buying (long position) or fall by selling (short position).

CFDs do not confer ownership of the investment. Instead the investor has access to the price performance which includes any dividend or corporate action equivalent.

What is the Irish tax treatment for gains / profits?

Contracts for Difference are treated as Capital Assets liable to Capital Gains Tax UNLESS they are deemed to be held in the course of a financial trade in which case the profits are liable to Income Tax under Case I, Schedule D.

According to Revenue eBrief No. 36/2007:

“The contracts require two parties to take opposing positions on the future value of a particular asset or index. Investments are often made on a margin of 20% of the contract amount. As well as the difference in value of the asset from beginning to end of the contract period, certain other notional income flows are taken into account in calculating the overall gain or loss.

• The first of these is notional interest, calculated on the non-margined value of the underlying asset for the contract duration.

• The second is the notional income which would have been earned by the asset during the contract period.

Where the contract is long (expectation of a rise in price), notional interest is a deduction and notional income a credit in the calculation.

Where the contract is short (expectation of a fall in price), notional interest is a credit and notional income a deduction.

The chargeable gain will be calculated on the gain or loss resulting from the computations above and including a deduction for all necessary broker fees incurred in the full contract.

Actual interest paid, if any, on the margin amount put up will be chargeable under Case III in the ordinary way and does not come into the CGT calculation.”

What’s the difference between holding Capital Assets and operating a financial trade?

The concept of a “trade” is a matter of interpretation and is usually determined by a number of factors known as “badges of trade.”

For example, a once off transaction would not normally be considered a “trade.” Depending on the circumstances and the timing it may be liable to Capital Gains Tax or indeed may be exempt from tax. If, on the other hand, the investor was involved in a large number of transactions throughout the year of assessment then this activity would be most likely be considered to be a trade and therefore liable to Income Tax.

What are the “Badges of Trade”?

There are a number of factors which will determine the existence of a “trade”. There is, however, no decisive test and no legislative definition. There is considerable case law concerning this issue and in 1954 a Royal Commission was set up in the United Kingdom to consider what factors should be taken into account in deciding whether a trade exists. A report was published outlining the “Badges of Trade” which are as follows:


While almost any form of property can be acquired to be dealt in, those forms of property, such as commodities or manufactured articles, which are normally the subject of trading, are only very exceptionally, the subjects of investment.

Again, property, which does not yield to its owner an income, or personal enjoyment merely by virtue of its ownership is more likely to have been acquired with the object of a deal than property that does;


Generally speaking, property meant to be dealt in is realised within a short time after acquisition. But there are many exceptions from this as a universal rule;


If realisations of the same sort of property occur in succession over a period of years or there are several such realisations at about the same date a presumption arises that there has been dealing in respect of each;


If the property is worked on in any way during the ownership so as to bring it into a more marketable condition, or if any special exertions are made to find or attract purchasers, such as the opening of an office or large-scale advertising, there is some evidence of dealing. When there is an organised effort to obtain profit there is a source of taxable income. But if nothing at all is done, the suggestion tends the other way;


There may be some explanation, such as a sudden emergency or opportunity calling for ready money that negates the idea that any plan of dealing prompted the original purchase;


There are cases in which the purpose of the transaction and sale is clearly discernible. Motive is never irrelevant in any of these cases and can be inferred from surrounding circumstances in the absence of direct evidence of the seller’s intentions.

In Summary

1. If goods or services are provided regularly with a commercial motive this will generally indicate the existence of a trade.

2. The length of ownership of the asset can be relevant but not conclusive in determining the existence of a trade.

3. The frequency and number of similar transactions by the same person should also be considered.

4. Making the items more marketable or improving them is generally considered to be an indication of a trade.

5. The intention of making a profit makes the transaction or transactions more likely to be a trade.

6. The nature of the asset may not be relevant in deciding whether or not trade is involved. The purchase/sale of land and/or shares can often be viewed as trading activities once the above factors have been taken into account.

Say an individual is employed in an investments role by day and makes considerable CFD profits in his/her spare time based on a significant number of transactions, how would this income be taxed?

Although opinions published by Revenue in the context of financial services are primarily concerned with group financing and treasury operations I believe they have direct relevance to this situation and should certainly be taken into consideration in ruling in favour of Income Tax Treatment.

In one such case, Revenue believed that the company was trading on the basis that the company was actively managing the business and making strategic decisions regarding financing and treasury operations. Despite the fact that the activities of the company were outsourced (i.e. no individuals were employed in the company), the outsourcing arrangement was managed and controlled by Irish resident directors with the appropriate level of specialized expertise in this area.

In this example, as the individual’s Irish PAYE employment relates to the area of financial services/investments, it would be difficult to see how Revenue could treat his/her CFD activities as anything other than trading activities liable to Income Tax.

In summary, as the CFD relates to a large number of transactions with a profit motive which requires a considerable amount of skill and expertise, it would be highly probable that this income would be liable to Income Tax and not Capital Gains Tax.


1. Capital Gains Tax will arise on CFD Gains.

2. Capital Gains Tax will arise on the difference between opening and closing values of an asset.

3. Income Tax will arise on deposit interest earned on margin.

4. The margin is the initial equity investment which is usually up to 20% to show the investor can complete the contract on closing. If there are significantly negative market variations then additional capital will be required by investors so as to avoid forfeiting or losing the full margin deposit.

5. The ‘non-margin’ is defined as the balance which is leveraged or borrowed to purchase the position at the outset of the CFD.

6. Income Tax will arise on accounting profits if the CFDs are held in the course of a trade.

In accordance with Circular 230 Disclosure

Since founding Accounts Advice Centre in Dublin in 1996, Claire McNamara has established a reputation for successfully advising businesses, corporate and personal tax clients. Her knowledge spans various sectors and her experience includes corporate transactions, inheritance tax planning, International Tax Treaties, personal tax as well as advising on issues affecting non domiciled individuals and offshore clients. She constantly delivers a value added service and efficient tax management solutions to high net worth private clients, property owners, executives, entrepreneurs, entertainers and members of various professions.

As a Chartered Tax Adviser, Claire has considerable experience in professional practice and will personally help you to deal with all your tax affairs competently, professionally and successfully. She has also lectured extensively in taxation on courses for the main professional accountancy qualifications including A.C.C.A., A.C.A. and C.P.A. and is actively involved in preparing students for the Irish Tax Institute’s CTA qualification.

Claire has effectively handled a number of Revenue Audits and Appeals on behalf of her diverse client base and has successfully negotiated solutions resulting in substantial differences to the eventual tax liability, surcharge and penalties.


Subscribe to TaxConnections Blog

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.