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PFIC And Canadian Mutual Funds

Why are PFIC rules important for holders of Canadian mutual fund?

Many American citizens living or working in Canada have invested in Canadian mutual funds – likewise, many Canadians who subsequently moved to the United States retained their Canadian mutual funds holdings. They likely are unaware of the PFIC rules. Consequently many American taxpayers holding Canadian PFIC have not met their reporting obligations. Not only that  but PFIC investments are to be avoided since its taxation (with the exception of the QEF regime) is designed to be punitive.

American taxpayers who have an interest in a PFIC must file Form 8621 (unless maximum value is less than $ 25,000 and no sale) with their tax returns.

In all likelihood, these investments are held within a foreign bank (securities) account – in that case, if the total value of foreign accounts, including mutual funds, owned and controlled by an American taxpayer exceeds $ 10,000 at any time during a taxation year, a FinCEN 114 form (FBAR) must be filed separately with the Treasury Department. Regardless of the account balance, the existence of the foreign bank accounts is to be reported on Schedule B to the tax return.

The Dec 30, 2013 revenue ruling somewhat reduced the paperwork/reporting requirement since a form 8621 is no longer required if there is no disposition, no election made and PFIC holdings are less than $25,000.

Penalty for failure to file a form 8621: $10,000 (starting with tax year 2013) Section 6038D(d). Also, the statute of limitation on the whole return would not expire until 3 years after the form 8621 is filed (so no statute of limitation if no informational return/form 8621 is filed) Section 6501(c)(8) [Read note 1]

The remaining of this article is written under the assumption that Canadian mutual funds (treated as trusts under Canadian law) are PFICs. It is however noteworthy to note that while Canadian mutual funds definitively meet the “passive” part of the PFIC definition (income test & asset test discussed below), it is debatable that it is a corporation.

The IRS says that it is a “business entity” if it is not a trust (Section 301.7701-2(a)) [Read note 2]

A Canadian mutual fund might or might not be an investment trust as described in 26 CFR 301.7701-4 (c)(1) – in which case the mutual fund will not be a PFIC [Read note 3]

The IRS has issued a private ruling letter (200752029) in the context of PFIC in which it ruled that the mutual fund was an eligible entity (for check the box classification – in this case, the fund elected to be treated as a corporation on form 8832). Absent such an election, the eligible entity (with several members) would be treated as a partnership, hence it would be a pass-through entity and the PFIC rules wouldn’t apply.

Outside the PFIC context, the IRS issued a private ruling letter (200024024) also indicating that a mutual fund is an eligible entity.

Private Letter Ruling 200752029:

“The Fund is not a trust under Treas. Reg. § 301.7701-4(a) because it is not simply an arrangement to protect or conserve property for the beneficiaries. The Fund is a device to carry on a profit-making business.[…]Because the Fund is a business entity that is not classified as a corporation under Treas. Reg. § 301.7701-2(b)(1), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), or (8), it is an eligible entity. As an eligible entity, the Fund can elect its classification for federal tax purposes under Treas. Reg. § 301.7701-3.[…]On Date 1, the Fund filed a Form 8832, Entity Classification Election, indicating that is was a foreign eligible entity electing to be classified as an association taxable as a corporation for U.S. income tax purposes.”

Private Letter Ruling 200024024:

”Based solely on the facts submitted and representations made, we conclude that the Fund is a “business entity” within the meaning of § 301.7701-2(a). The Fund represents that it is not classified as a corporation under § 301.7701-2(b)(1), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7) or (8). Accordingly, we further conclude that the Fund is an eligible entity and can elect its classification for federal tax purposes as provided in § 301.7701-3T and § 301.7701-3.” Finally, the following might have been seen as indicating that mutual funds are corporations (this memo was not written in the context of PFIC rules)

Memo (UILC: 2103.00-00):

”Assuming the Canadian mutual funds held by Decedent’s RRSP are classified as corporations for U.S. tax purposes, which appears to be the case, no portion of the RRSP would be includible in Decedent’s gross estate for federal estate tax purposes.”

The IRS has not issued a revenue ruling on the subject so in theory it would still be possible to roll the dice.

Also, if unsure if you have a PFIC, you can make a protective statement (described under “Protective statement regime” on page 5 of the instructions – if it later turn out to be a PFIC, the protective statement allows the taxpayer to make a late election)

Definition of a PFIC (Passive Foreign Investment Company)

Under the Internal Revenue Code, a foreign corporation that meets one of the following criteria is considered a Passive Foreign Investment Company:

• 75% or more of its gross income for a tax year is passive income (the income test); or

• 50% or more of assets during the tax year produce passive income or are held for the production of passive income (the asset test). [Read note 4]

Passive income includes interest, dividends, royalties, annuities, rents, equivalent to interest income, net gains on foreign commodities, the net foreign exchange earnings, payments in lieu of dividends, income from derivatives contracts, and income from certain personal service contracts. In general, the fair market value of the assets of a foreign company (based on the value of the assets of the company at the end of each quarter) is used to apply the asset test.

If a foreign corporation owns, directly or indirectly, 25% or more of a subsidiary, the part of the company’s earnings and assets of the subsidiary must be included in determining whether the company is a passive foreign investment company.

The IRS does not classify as a PFIC an active business (for which there truly is an activity) companies such as banks, financial institutions and insurance companies. The PFIC rules are applied separately for each person while holding shares, and also separately with respect to shares acquired at different times. The PFIC does not in itself affect the foreign corporation or foreign shareholders (non-US persons).

1 The 2013 temporary regulations increase the importance of properly identifying PFIC investments and determining whether a taxpayer is a PFIC ‘shareholder.’ Previously, there was no specific penalty for failing to file a Form 8621, other than missing the opportunity to make a timely election. Failing to meet these new requirements may now result also in extensions of the statute of limitations, and potential penalties under Section 6038D – the 10,000 penalty applies if directly held PFICs are not reported on either Form 8621 or Form 8938 when required.

2  Section 301.7701-2(a) defines a “business entity” […] as any entity recognized for federal tax purposes […] that is not properly classified as a trust under § 301.7701-4 or otherwise subject to special treatment under the Code.

3 An investment trust with a single class of ownership interests, representing undivided beneficial interests in the assets of the trust, will be classified as a trust if there is no power under the trust agreement to vary the investment of the certificate holders.

Ability to buy additional shares of mutual funds does not make it a corporation: From : A power to vary does not exist as a result of reinvestments that occur outside of the original investment trust.

4 From IRC Section 1297, a ““passive foreign investment company” means any foreign corporation if—4 From IRC Section 1297, a ““passive foreign investment company” means any foreign corporation if—

(1) 75 percent or more of the gross income of such corporation for the taxable year is passive income, or

(2) the average percentage of assets (as determined in accordance with subsection (e)) held by such corporation during the taxable year which produce passive income or which are held for the production of passive income is at least 50%.”

IRC Section 1297(1) makes the link to section 954(c), where passive income is described to include A) Dividends, interests, rent, annuities, B) Certain property transactions C) Commodities transactions

Olivier Wagner

Olivier Wagner

Certified Public Accountant, U.S. immigrant, expat, and perpetual traveler Olivier Wagner preaches the philosophy of being a worldly American. He uses his expertise to show you how to use 100% legal strategies (beyond traditionally maligned “tax havens”) to keep your income and assets safe from the IRS. Before obtaining my U.S. citizenship and traveling all over the world, he was born and raised in France. His experience learning the intricacies of the U.S. immigration process combined with his desire to travel freely lead me to specialize in taxes for Americans living and working abroad. He helps Americans Abroad file their taxes and devise strategies that make sense for their lifestyle. These strategies encompass all aspects of registering an offshore business, opening a bank account abroad, and planning out new residencies and citizenships. He is operating the accounting firm 1040 Abroad. 1040 Abroad exists to help you make sense of an incredibly large world of possibilities. Find out more by visiting